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Psychosis

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Not to be confused with Psychopathy.

For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation).

Psychosis

Classification and external resources

ICD-10

F20- F29[1]

ICD-9

290-299

OMIM

603342 608923 603175 192430

MedlinePlus

001553

MeSH

F03.700.675

Psychosis (from the Ancient Greek ψυχή "psyche", for mind/soul, and -ωσις "-osis", for abnormal condition) means abnormal condition of the mind, and is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a "loss of contact with reality". People suffering from psychosis are described as psychotic. Psychosis is given to the more severe forms of psychiatric disorder, during which hallucinations and delusions and impaired insight may occur.[2] Some professionals say that the term psychosis is not sufficient as some illnesses grouped under the term "psychosis" have nothing in common (Gelder, Mayou & Geddes 2005). Indeed, a complex constellation of neurological and psychological factors can result in the altered signalling observed in psychosis. In otherwise normal individuals, exogenous ligands can produce psychotic symptoms. NMDA receptor antagonists, such as ethanol and ketamine, can replicate a similar psychosis to that experienced in schizophrenia.[3]

Prolonged or high dose use of psychostimulants will alter of function like the manic phase of bipolar disorder.[4] NMDA antagonists replicate the some of the so called "negative" symptoms e.g., thought disorder in subanasthetic doses, and catatonia in high doses. Psychostimulants, especially in one already prone to psychotic thinking, can cause some "positive" symptoms, such as delusional beliefs, particularly those persecutory in nature. However, some positive symptoms lack a simple neurotransmitter-based explanation, specifically, the auditory hallucinations observed in schizophrenia. These have a much more complex genesis, involving abnormal synaptic plasticity, and the formation of a "parallel process" within the brain. Of specific interest is the entorhinal cortex, which has much less (indirect) connections to the tertiary auditory cortex, as well as direct connections to the hippocampus, the most active region of neurogenesis in the adult brain.

The absence of layer IV in this portion of the temporal lobe means much less interneuronal "buffering" is present. As such, there are many more connections between the large pyramidal neurons of layer V and the relatively small pyramidal neurons of layer III. As such, the unique structure of this area allows its cortiocortical efferents, specifically layer III to layer I of the prefrontal cortex, to exert much excitatory, to the globally modulatory frontal lobes.

This gain in transmission allows the hippocampus, through the entorhinal cortex, to create a global network after much long-term potentiation throughout infancy and childhood. LTP allows certain circuits to become dominant, and when neurons do not receive input, they atrophy and die. After this network is established (through the representation of language), some unknown plastic process occurs, during adolescence, commonly, or less often in adulthood.

In a schizophrenic's brain, an independent circuit within the entorhinal cortex/basal ganglic complex has formed. Through layer III/I transmission to the greater area of the medial temporal lobe. This then results in the auditory hallucinations observed in schizophrenia.[5] The specific mechanisms of LTP are unknown at the moment, but NMDA receptors crucial for the burst firing required, and dopamine plays a very important role in medating basal ganglic, thus hippocampal and memory activity(which is much more complex, involving neurogenesis and LTD as well). Thus, the neurochemical alterations which induce psychosis in otherwise healthy people are indicative that the root of the symptoms altered thalamocortical and hippocamalcortical transmission, and corresponding layer 5/thalamus axis function, altering the crucial ordered cortiocortical layer 3/1 and 2/3 transmission necessary for rational language self-expression.

The terms psychosis and psychotic are very broad and can mean anything from relatively normal aberrant experiences through to the florid and catatonic expressions of schizophrenia and bipolar type 1 disorder [6] Despite this, psychosis is a term generally given to noticeable deficits in normal behavior (known as deficit or negative signs) or more commonly to the florid experiences of hallucinations or delusional beliefs. People experiencing psychosis may exhibit personality changes and thought disorder. Depending on its severity, this may be accompanied by unusual or bizarre behavior, as well as difficulty with social interaction and impairment in carrying out daily life activities. It is also important to note that psychosis usually refers to negative expressions, that is paranoia, stereotypy etc. rather than ecstatic experience such as religious ecstasy, though with such a broad term, there are no hard and fast rules.

A wide variety of central nervous system diseases, from both external poisons and internal physiologic illness, can produce symptoms of psychosis

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it reminds me of ME :lol:

i take it as a great insult being tared with the same brush as Lemon

having suffered from psychosis for a number of years,it dosen't make you anything like that prick doh

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it reminds me of ME :lol:

i take it as a great insult being tared with the same brush as Lemon

having suffered from psychosis for a number of years,it dosen't make you anything like that prick doh

So your the forum Psycho craphead2.gif

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it reminds me of ME :lol:

i take it as a great insult being tared with the same brush as Lemon

having suffered from psychosis for a number of years,it dosen't make you anything like that prick doh

how did you come to that conclusion, was it the loss of reality or something else

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